GDPR Compliance Risks on Websites

Authored by Matt O’Neill, General Manager, Europe, The Media Trust. 

The way the cookie crumbles


Today’s websites and apps (your corporate website included) are powered by sophisticated technology. After all, in order support consumer expectations—content consumption, search, social networking, shopping carts, travel booking, banking, news, gaming and so much more—websites incorporate robust solutions on the backend.

These solutions aren’t news to most InfoSec professionals, but it is where security problems start. Think about it. Almost 80% of a typical website’s functionality is outsourced to vendors providing specialized services such as data management platforms, marketing analytics, customer identification, image or video hosting, payment processing, content delivery and more. This third-party code operates outside the purview of your IT and security infrastructure, which means that you control less than 25% of the code executing on your website. As the website operator, you have no insight into when this code is compromised to act as a conduit for malware propagation and unauthorized audience data collection. Considering the current regulatory environment around data compliance, the above statistics should make you nervous.

Cookie crumbs

To put it bluntly: You can’t control what you don’t see, and the third-party code enabled functionalities on your digital properties are compromised more often than you think. Also, you have more third-party code than you realize.

As the security provider of choice for the world’s largest digital properties, The Media Trust scans websites for security and policy violations and actively manages more than 500 incidents at any one time. Some of the simplest websites average 10 third-party vendors, but most have dozens. The vendors continuously change and so do their actions.

The Media Trust’s website security and scanning team often detects persistent or unauthorized cookies with a lifespan of 30 years or more; one brand name ecommerce website recently dropped a 7,000+ year cookie. This is a huge issue with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which goes into effect in less than a year. Compliance to GDPR requires detailed, real-time, knowledge of executing digital partners and their activity, including the type of data collected and how long the partner remains on the user’s device, i.e., browser, phone, tablet, etc.

If you are wondering how GDPR affects your business, then you’ve got a lot of catching up to do. GDPR supports the data protection rights of every EU resident, therefore every business with EU interests—in the form of customers, legal entities, business infrastructure, etc.—needs to comply. And, the global nature of the internet means any business with EU website traffic or app users needs to comply as well.

Clearly, enterprises should make some changes to digital operations in order to reduce exposure to GDPR violations. At a minimum, you need to do the following for all your digital properties—websites (desktop and mobile) and mobile apps included:

1. Communicate privacy policy

  • Write a clear privacy policy that explains use of third-party code and outlines any data collection activity
  • Place banner on homepage
  • Deliver Internal training

2. Provide easy-to-use opt in/ opt out mechanism

  • Explain need for tracking and how cookies are used to drive digital operations
  • Share links to individual privacy policies of all in-scope vendors on your site
  • Allow individuals to explicitly agree and/or refuse tracking

3. Understand how website/app-generated data is acquired, used & stored

  • Identify data: Registration, Cookies, IP addresses, device IDs
  • Assess the legal basis to collect data and determine if consent is necessary, e.g., Personally Identifiable Information (PII) vs. transaction functionality, etc.
  • Evaluate need for a specific policy regarding data collection of minor activity (16 years old in GDPR; under 13 years old in U.K. and U.S.)

4. Support data portability

5. Incorporate website intrusion in data breach reporting

While the GDPR mandate for websites has been clearly laid out, meeting it is easier said than done! With the fines for noncompliance enumerated in the regulation (between 4% of global revenues or €20 Million), InfoSec is under pressure from internal risk and compliance professionals to ensure all data elements are documented, assessed and controlled.   

Ignorance is real. So is anarchy.

With such a tall order, it is disturbing that so many InfoSec professionals overlook the perils of third-party vendor code going unchecked. Companies desperately need to incorporate digital vendors into their vendor risk management program. Most website/app operators are in the dark about how many direct and indirect vendors contribute to code on their site and who these vendors are, let alone know how many domains and cookies these vendors use to track website visitors.

Digital vendor risk management will highlight the security and compliance gaps inherent in the digital environment. For example, there really isn’t a clear chain of command when it comes to authorizing the presence of third-party vendors executing on a website. It is a fairly decentralized process, with departments like marketing, sales, IT, risk and legal all making decisions regarding the vendors they would like to use for various website functionalities. This makes creating accountability challenging, with most issues relegated to the IT and security departments to solve.

Putting the “Digital” in Vendor Risk Management

Yes, the odds are stacked against website operators, but creating a holistic digital vendor risk management program isn’t impossible. To create a risk management and GDPR compliance program for your digital properties, you should be able to answer the following:

Within 2 weeks:

  1. How many third-party vendors execute in websites and mobile apps
  2. What are the names of these vendors?
  3. What exactly are they doing, i.e., intended purpose and also additional, out-of-scope activity?

Within 1 month:

4. Do we have contracts to authorize the scope of the work?
5. How does third-party vendor activity affect overall website/app performance?
6. What are the risks to data privacy?
7. What is my exposure to regulatory risk via vendor behavior?

Within 3 months:

8. Am I maintaining encryption throughout the call chain?
9. As these vendors change over time, what is the process to identify new vendors and their activity on websites and apps?
10. If the corporate website isn’t fully secure, what happens when employees visit the site? Is the enterprise network at risk?

Once you’ve been able to answer the above questions, within a year’s time, you should be able to create comprehensive digital vendor governance process that looks like this:

GDPR Complian Blog Post Image

Ecommerce: Payment card stealing malware

Authored by Chris Olson, CEO and Co-Founder, The Media Trust.

Malware compromise demonstrates how payment security standards are in dire need of an update for the digital cards falling as dominoes

A bad actor has upped the stakes in his campaign to collect consumer payment card information by expanding his reach to mid-tier ecommerce providers across the US, UK and India, covering a range of industries including apparel, home goods, beauty and sporting event registrations.

Echoing a similar scenario observed over Memorial Day weekend in 2016, the bad actor injected a transparent overlay on top of the credit/debit card information block on a payment page so that a victim’s financial information is surreptitiously collected and sent to another party, not the e-retailer.

Considering these ecommerce firms earn anywhere from a $10,000 to $400,000 a day, the ecommerce firms risk significant revenue loss and negative consumer confidence. In addition, they also demonstrate inadequate security processes, even though these processes may comply with Payment Card Industry (PCI) standards.

[Please note, The Media Trust has a policy of not revealing the names of websites experiencing an active compromise. Affected ecommerce site operators were, however, notified of this breach.]

The big picture

The infection gradually spread to a number of small and mid-tier ecommerce sites in the US, UK and India, over the last few days. Upon analysis, The Media Trust discovered that each ecommerce provider uses the same open source content management system (CMS) to serve as the consumer-facing front end. The CMS platform’s master page script is infected with one of the several malicious domains. The malicious domain is present in the website’s footer section which means that it permeates every page of the site and not just the checkout page.

In addition, researchers detected multiple domain pairs, which were registered by the same bad actor within the past few months and labeled as suspicious by The Media Trust within two weeks of creation. The domains are now overtly malicious. To avoid detection, the malicious domains execute over varying time intervals and, in at least one instance, move from website to website across the three regions.

Scenario breakdown

In the course of supporting our clients, The Media Trust first detected the malicious actor via client-side scans of advertising-related content, i.e., creative, tags and landing page. The ecommerce site serves as the landing page for an advertising campaign.

The actor used multiple techniques to carry out his attack. In the following scenario, the landing page contains <assetsbrain[dot]com>, extraneous code unnecessary for the proper execution of a payment.

Image 1Malicious domain in the website’s footer

When the victim chooses to make a purchase via the checkout page, <assetsbrain[dot]com> performs two distinct actions: executes JavaScript to inject a transparent overlay on top of the payment card information block and drops a user-identifying cookie.

Ecommerce Post Image 2.pngExecution of transparent overlay

After input of card details, the malicious domain sends the information to <[dot]php>, an obvious spoof of a common payments platform.

Because the ecommerce operator doesn’t receive the card details, the shopper receives an error message and/or request to re-submit their payment information. The unauthorized cookie identifies the user and therefore does not execute the malicious script when the user re-enters the payment card information.

Online transactions remain a risky endeavor

In the realm of compromises, this infection highlights the inadequacy of current PCI security standards. Issued by the Payment Card Industry Council in 2005, the PCI Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) aims to protect cardholder data used during online financial transactions. Backed by the world’s largest credit card issues, PCI DSS requires online merchants to conform to a set of standards such as regular website and server vulnerability checks.

The affected ecommerce sites do not have certifications or seals demonstrating PCI compliance. Their privacy policies declare regular scanning and website security policy review; however, these processes are insufficient, since traditional web application security (appsec) solutions are not able to effectively detect malicious behavior executing via third-party code.

Proving the fallibility of traditional web application scanning utilities, all domains (ecommerce providers, initial malicious domain and spoofed payments platform) are considered clean by VirusTotal as of early morning May 16.

Protect your business by securing your revenue stream

Any size ecommerce provider can protect their revenue and reputation by adopting the following website risk management strategies:

  • Secure your CMS platform: Review security processes with the CMS platform and keep all code and plugins up to date.
  • Surpass PCI DSS standards. Demand more rigorous scanning of the entire website to identify compromise of both owned and third-party code not visible to the website operator.
  • Audit operations. Document all vendors and their actions when executing on your website. This helps you quickly identify anomalous behavior and establishes a remediation path.